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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 34-42

Diagnostic modalities used for celiac disease: Advancements and future prospects


1 Multi Disciplinary Research Unit, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab and Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Gangoh, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Multi Disciplinary Research Unit, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India
3 School of Biological Engineering and Life Sciences, Shobhit Institute of Engineering and Technology, Meerut, India
4 Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Gangoh, Uttar Pradesh, India
5 University Centre of Excellence in Research, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Malika Arora
Research Scientist I, Multidisciplinary Research Unit, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot - 151 203, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JIHS.JIHS_3_20

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Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that occurs generally in genetically predisposed individuals due to the ingestion of gluten and related proteins. Initially, the occurrence was reported only in few of the countries, specifically in predominant Caucasian populations, but nowadays, it is being reported from almost all parts of the world. The increased prevalence rate of CD worldwide is because of an increase in awareness and detection of the disease due to advancements in diagnostic modalities which were not available in earlier times. As per current scenario, the clinical demonstration of the disease vary greatly due to multiple and varying symptoms; hence, there is a great difficulty in designing of specific and sensitive diagnostic tests. All the available diagnostic tools are invasive in nature leading to increased patient compliance. Serological (antigliadin antibody, EMA, transglutaminase immunoglobulin A, and deamidated gliadin peptide) test results always need to be verified by biopsy test in order to confirm the disease. A step-by-step diagnostic approach should always be followed by the doctors as well as patients for proper diagnosis and management of the disease. Keeping the scarcity of patient-friendly, specific, and sensitive diagnostic tools in mind, the present manuscript has been compiled to highlight different diagnostic modalities to enable coeliac disease scientists to find out and develop novel diagnostic techniques for this disease. In addition, the article also highlights the advancements in the development of new techniques over advantages and disadvantages of existing techniques.


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