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  Most popular articles (Since August 02, 2018)

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Comparison of accuracy of Root ZX II and Root ZX Mini in presence of various irrigants: an in vitro study
DS Vaid, NC Shan, DM Kothari, PS Bilgi
January-June 2015, 3(1):28-33
Aim: Comparison of the effect of QMix, 7% maleic acid and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite on the accuracy of Root ZX II and Root ZX Mini apex locator. Methodology: 45 single rooted teeth were decoronated. Patency was checked and coronal flaring was done. They were then divided into 3 groups: i) QMix, ii) 7% Maleic acid and iii) 2.5% Sodium hypochlorite. The actual length of each tooth was determined before embedding them in an alginate model. 5ml of the respective irrigant was introduced into the canal. Working length was measured with Root ZX and Root ZX Mini apex locators. For each sample, an average of a total of three readings was considered. Statistical analysis was performed using Anova, Two Way, Post hoc, Paired t-tests. Results: Group I (QMix) showed no statistically significant results. Group II (7% Maleic acid), showed statistically significant difference from the actual length with Root ZX Mini (p=0.002). Group III (2.5% sodium hypochlorite) showed statistically significant difference from the actual length with Root ZX II (p=0.04) and Root ZX Mini (p=0.0002). A statistically significant difference was seen in the readings by both the apex locators (p=0.005). Conclusion: QMix does not affect the accuracy of apex locators. Root ZX II is more accurate than Root ZX Mini in the presence of 7% maleic acid and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite.
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Assess knowledge and practice of internship students regarding assisted body mechanics to reduce musculoskeletal disorders and to develop safety guideline on manual handling technique
PGN Swamy, Ruhi Varghese, Archana Kokani
July-December 2017, 5(2):11-17
Introduction: Assisted body mechanics is used to describe the movement we make each day during normal activities, including lying in bed, sitting, standing, lifting, pulling, pushing and walking. Body mechanics can be both good and bad and can have direct effects on back. Good body mechanics will help remedy and prevent future back problem, while bad body mechanics contribute to back problem and other muscle and bone problems. Nursing is a job that needs a lot of bending our back, arms and legs and pushing, pulling patients, because of which many nurses are at risk for developing physical strains and back injuries or even fractures. Aim: The main aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and practice of internship students regarding assisted body mechanics to reduce the musculoskeletal disorders with a view to develop safety guideline on manual handling technique. Methodology: A descriptive approach was used to collect data from 100 internship nursing students using self administered knowledge questionnaire and practice checklist at Sumandeep Nursing College. Result: The study result shows that 85% of internship students had average knowledge regarding assisted body mechanics, 84 % were practicing good body mechanics technique, 14% had fair practice, and 2% had poor practice of body mechanics.
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Telemedicine and telehealth - The Indian scenario
A Singh, A Roy, P Goyal
January-June 2016, 4(1):3-8
The health care industry is currently undergoing a massive and irreversible transformation and change. Time is approaching when telemedicine/e-health initially shall be visibly practiced in majority of the Indian hospitals as a separate department before eventually fusing into respective medical specialties in spite its slow growth in India. This review appraises current scenario of telemedicine and telehealth in India. Official documents belonging to the Health ministry and finally related literature were examined. Telemedicine can enhance basic/specialty healthcare for India’s population which is predominantly rural. Indian Medical Personals, by large are not computer savvy’s, virtually lack awareness and exposure with regard to the application of information and communication technology in Medicine. These are foremost bottlenecks to the growth of Telemedicine in India. The present study outlines telemedicine strong and weak points. Undoubtedly, the advantages outweigh its disadvantages, but just like any other innovations, it has some drawbacks.
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Adverse effects of steroid use in dermatophytic infections: a cross sectional study
Som Jitendra Lakhani, Freny Bilimoria, Jitendra D Lakhani
July-December 2017, 5(2):63-68
Background: Dermatophytosis is a type of superficial fungal infection which is a cause of significant morbidity especially in the Indian subcontinent. One of the major causes of the rising trend in the incidence of dermatophytosis is the unwarranted use of steroids in the management of fungal infection. Methods: A cross sectional study of dermatophytic fungal infections was carried out with research question of ‘Is steroid formulation abused in dermatophytic infections? What are their effects and side effects?’ All patients of dermatophytic infection were primarily selected over period of six months of which patients who had history or findings of some form of steroid use were further analyzed. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected in regards to steroid formulations about type, duration of use, route of administration and their availability by prescription or “over the counter”. Dermatological signs of steroid use were noted. Results: Of total 180 patients of dermatophytosis, 72 patients (40%) had used steroid formulations either topical (52), intralesional (9) or injectable (11) and 108 did not. Most patients (50 of 72) (69%) were from rural background and had long mean duration of illness (24 ± 3 weeks). Multiple site infection of dermatophytosis was present in 60 of 72 (83%) and in 51of 108 (47.22%) in steroid misuse and in non-steroid use patient group respectively. Cutaneous adverse effects were common in steroid modified dermatophysis patients. Unauthorized use of steroid was in form of self application, over the counter availability, use of steroid preparation of relatives and others. Conclusions: Misuse of steroid formulations in dermatophytic infections may lead to adverse effect as well as chronicity. Awareness of this problem is needed for prevention of steroid modified dermatophytosis, which is a rising menace.
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SOFA vs APACHE II as ICU scoring system for sepsis: A dilemma
JD Lakhani
July-December 2015, 3(2):3-7
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A comparative study of muscle energy technique and positional release technique on hamstring flexibility in healthy individuals
Sejal Sailor, Yesha Mehta, Neha Shah, Anuja Trivedi
July-December 2018, 6(2):64-68
Background: Muscular flexibility is an essential aspect of normal human function. Flexibility can be gained by a variety of stretching techniques and other techniques, yet little work has been performed to compare these techniques. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of muscle energy technique (MET) and positional release technique (PRT) on hamstring flexibility in healthy individual participants. Methods: Twenty-four healthy participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into two equal groups. Two groups following a home-based 2 weeks' (five 10 min sessions per week) hamstring stretching protocol (stretching performed by MET or by PRT). The range of motion (ROM) of knee extension was measured before and after stretching program by means of active knee extension test and active straight leg raise using universal goniometer. Results: There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following the application of MET and PRT. However, increase in knee extension ROM was higher in MET compared to PRT. The change in the flexibility from the value at initial evaluation to after 2 weeks' intervention was also higher in the MET. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the MET is more effective than PRT for healthy individuals with normal and limited hamstring flexibility.
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Evaluation of parental perception regarding smile of children according to visual analog scale
Bhavna H Dave, Vaishnavi Umeshkumar Shah, Seema Bargale, Anshula Deshpande, Roshani Patel, Shraddha Sura
July-December 2018, 6(2):41-44
Introduction: Most patients go to dental offices nowadays looking for an esthetically pleasant smile, being stimulated by the esthetic patterns suggested by the society which associate a beautiful smile to success. The role of a dentist is to provide the best functional as well as esthetic restoration to the child as per his needs. Subjects and Methods: It is a questionnaire-based observational study. Questionnaire-based photographs (six in number) distributed among 400 parents who came with their children (<5 years) to the malls of Vadodara city. Each photograph showed different conditions of smile, namely, nonspaced dentition, spaced dentition, carious teeth, traumatic injury, teeth with plaque, and missing teeth. Each parent was asked to grade them in ascending order of appearance of the photographs as per their esthetic view. The parents were also asked to grade numerically from 1 to 6 in ascending order. Results: A descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. Results on continuous measurements were presented on mean ± standard deviation and results on categorical measurements were presented in number (%). Perception of esthetics given by parents with preference and position is as follows: nonspaced dentition, teeth with plaque, spaced dentition, traumatic injury, carious teeth, and missing teeth. Conclusions: It was concluded that parents are more concerned about the cleanliness and structure of their child's teeth which can create and play a role in esthetics.
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The international classification of headache disorders: Anything new in 3rd edition?
Sanjay Prakash
January-June 2018, 6(1):1-2
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Situation analysis of sexually transmitted infections in India
Niraj Pandit, Jatin Chhaya
January-June 2018, 6(1):3-7
Sexual and reproductive health is important component of well-being of human health. It has close relationship with responsible, safe, and satisfying reproductive life. Unaccountable sexual health results in sexual and reproductive ill-health. HIV/AIDS is recently found pandemic disease, but sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are present since ancient time. The history of reproductive tract infection (RTI)/STIs is interesting from name change to treatment change strategy. It is very important to know the historical changes of disease and pattern of disease in country. The present review article is trying to evaluate various aspects of RTI/STIs including historical studies and SWOT analysis for the future challenges.
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Diet in diabetes: Conceptual and contextual
Swapan Kumar Paul, Amrita Ghosh, Ranabir Pal, Shrayan Pal
July-December 2018, 6(2):48-52
Background: Emerging concepts of interventions in diabetic diets should have been targeted to preserve health and nutritional status for the “living with disease philosophy.” Objective: In search of holistic dietary practice guidelines, the authors emphasized conceptual and contextual module for all levels of health-care providers for the optimum care of diabetics. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four research studies were identified from 45 potentially relevant databases and published literature to collate an updated idea of diabetic diet. Studies were selected on; first, all emerging nutritional plans and corresponding diets in diabetes mellitus among published literature were sketchily searched; second, “Diabetic diets” impacting disease control, retain health, and nutritional status affecting prognosis in downstream morbidities were identified; third, published reports from apex bodies of global importance such as American Diabetes Association, World Health Organization, Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, USA, and others were given due weightage for their conceptual and contextual framework. Results: We have assembled diversity and novel concepts in diabetic diets, keeping tailor-made nutritional requirements as the mainstay in the philosophy of all-inclusive regimes for this chronic disease. There is a paucity of qualitative translational researches on diabetic diets and often limited to on paper suggestions and devoid of feedback on compliance from stakeholders. Conclusions: In a holistic approach, we require more research about diabetic diet; these are very useful in daily family medicine practices for the improvement in clinical approach and treatment in patients with diverse downstream morbidities of this complex entity.
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Need for journal analysis: Is citation-based scores good enough to rank a journal?
Jitendra D Lakhani, Niraj Pandit, Girish Sailor
July-December 2018, 6(2):37-40
Journal analysis denotes evaluation, assessment, ranking, and scoring of a journal. It is an important exercise to be adopted by learning resource organization for recommending a journal for referring, scanning, referencing, subscribing, publishing, circulating, and disseminating purposes. Evaluation is done qualitatively in relation to content, objectives, and ethos. Rhetorical analysis of a journal will take into account something which is abstract and nonliteral. Advancement in ideology, in relation to different sphere of academic domains, is important key element of a particular journal. Journal which may communicate theory, practice, methods, skills, and thought process as a whole can reflect the image of an excellent journal. Analysis of these qualitative aspects should be part of the journal analysis. Quantitatively it can be ranked by modern tools which started as Science Citation Index and impact factor (IF) which then progressed to other numerical integers such as Eigenfactor score, Article Influence Score, and others. Numerical IFs have led to ranking system of journals and are based on “citations.” Can “citations” and its resultant statistics measure true impact of a journal? This article tries to share their viewpoint with discussion on various aspects of journal analysis.
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Extract of Euphorbia milii flower: A natural indicator in acid-base titration
K Trivedi Divya, K Sureja Dipen, P Sanghvi Kirtan, P Shah Ashish, K Seth Avinash
July-December 2016, 4(2):2-6
Introduction: Synthetic indicators had continuously been the first choice for all types of acid-base titrations since long time. However, due to certain disadvantages like high cost, availability problems and environmental pollution, an attempt is required to replace synthetic indicators with natural indicators. Methods: Methanolic extract of Euphorbia milii flowers from family Euphorbiaceae were evaluated in different types of titrations like strong acid (SA) v/s strong base (SB), weak base (WB) v/s strong acid (SA), and weak acid (WA) v/s strong base (SB). Results: Natural indicators gives sharp and intense colour change at the neutralization point and shows promising results when tested against available synthetic acid-base indicators such as methyl orange and phenolphthalein. Conclusion: This natural indicators could be an excellent replacement for synthetic indicators since they are economical, easily available, non-toxic, easy to extract, ecofriendly and accurate in all types of acid-base titrations.
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Incidence rate of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and its etiology in patients visiting Government Dental College and Hospital, Jamnagar (GDCH, Jamnagar)
RN Jha, PB Kalyani, SV Savarkar
January-June 2014, 2(1):11-15
Objectives: To assess the incidence rate of OSMF and its etiology in patients attending OPD at GDCH, Jamnagar. Material and Methods: The diagnosis of OSMF was based on clinical examination and evaluating patients “signs and symptoms. Results: The total number of patients affected by OSMF in this time duration was 268. Out of these, 230 (85.82%) were male, while 38 were female (14.18%). Therefore, male: female (M:F) ratio was 6:1. 104 males in the age group of 21-30 years constituted a single majority. Conclusion: This study reveals that the incidence rate of OSMF in patients visiting GDCH, Jamnagar was 1%. Males were more affected than females. It was seen that the major etiological factors in the development of OSMF was areca nut and gutkha usage by the patients.
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Prosthodontic rehabilitation of hemimandibulectomy patients with removable and fixed guiding flange appliances -case reports
RJ Shah, FG Malek
July-December 2014, 2(2):26-30
Surgical resection of mandible has to be done to treat various odontogenic epithelial tumours. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of the hemimandibulectomy patients with functional & aesthetic acceptance by the patient is the most difficult task. Guide flange appliance is given to correct deviation as well as permitting function of mastication & speech. Thus here two different case reports are discussed with removable & fixed guide flange appliances.
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Enhancement of physician wellbeing
Bhalendu S Vaishnav
July-December 2018, 6(2):35-36
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Efficacy of color doppler imaging over CT angiography in peripheral arterial disease
Chinmay Parikh, Parthiv Brahmbhatt, Chandra Raychaudhuri
July-December 2017, 5(2):45-52
Introduction : PAD is an atherosclerotic occlusive condition in which plaque builds up in the distal arteries. Until 10 years ago, conventional angiography and digital subtraction angiography were the only angiographic techniques used in peripheral vascular disease and are considered gold standard. However, the complications and patient discomfort associated with these techniques have prompted the need of less invasive means of assessing the peripheral arterial system. Aim of the study was to compare efficacy of USG and MDCT angiography for investigating the lower limb arterial disease. Method: 40 patients suspected of lower limb PAD were included. Patients with previous amputation surgery were excluded. In all patients color Doppler sonography and multi-detector CT angiography was done. A comparative study of multi-detector CT angiography and color Doppler sonography was undertaken. Result: 50% patients had complaints in left lower limb and 25% in right lower limb. 22% had bilateral lower limb pain which was more on the left side (12%). Three patients examined by angiography showed irregularity of arterial wall on both sides, which appeared as calcifications on CT angiography (sensitivity 100%) while only 2 of them appeared on color coded Doppler examination (sensitivity 75%). Conclusions: Color Doppler USG is the initial modality of choice in PAD. CT Angiography is a better for segmental length assessment, collateral circulation along with a road map reproduction of the arterial system. USG is better than CT angiography in diagnosis of Grade 1 &2 cases, with better assessment of soft plaques, segmental flow and recanalization in PAD.
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To compare the efficacy of incentive spirometry and resistive inspiratory devices on ventilatory muscle strength in patients with moderate dyspnea in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Kalpesh Satani, Ratan Khuman, Surbala Devi, Gopal Nambi
January-June 2013, 1(1):14-19
Backgrond: Dyspnea is one of the main complain of the COPD patients. In the general setting it is treated by medical and physiotherapeutic intervention. Incentive Spirometry and Resistive Inspiratory Devices are 2 main treatment approaches in physiotherapy. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of Incentive Spirometry and Resistive Inspiratory Devices on ventilatory muscle strength in COPD patients with mild to moderate dyspnea. Method: 30 COPD patients with mild to moderate dyspnea were randomly assigned to Incentive Spirometry group (Group A) and Resistive Inspiratory Device group (Group B). The duration of protocol was 4 weeks and both the groups received 2 sessions per day. Pre-treatment RPE and IC are compared with post-treatment data i.e, at the end of 4 weeks. Analysis was based on the ICS and Borg’s RPE scale. Results: The test showed significant improvement (p<0.05) in both ICS and RPE score. Using unpaired t-test mean improvement in group A and B was 566.06 ml and 695.2 ml respectively, t =1.049 (p=0.303) for ICS and using Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test median in group A and B was 2.5, U = 106 (p=0.782) for RPE score, since p>0.05 the comparison showed difference as not significant. This result showed that there is no significant difference between the 2 groups. Interpretation & Conclusion: It is concluded that there is no significant difference between the 2 groups. Both the interventions (Incentive Spirometer and Resistive Inspiratory Device) are equally effective, both in improving ventilatory muscle strength and reducing the perception of dyspnea in COPD patients with mild to moderate dyspnea.
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A study on drug utilization pattern of metformin and its different formulations used in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus in tertiary care teaching hospital
Dhaval B Joshi, Jitendra D Lakhani, Ronak Y Siddhpuria, Hiral P Tandel, Nisarg R Hajariwala
January-June 2018, 6(1):22-26
Background: Drug utilization evaluation is conducted to determine the rational use of drug by describing the drug usage pattern. This study aimed to describe the drug utilization pattern of metformin and its oral formulations. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify the prescribing pattern of metformin in fixed-dose combination (FDC), along with adjuvant antidiabetic therapy and it is prescribing in different formulations. Methodology: This is an observational study in which a total of 100 type 2 diabetic patients visited to or admitted in General Medicine Department, Dhiraj General Hospital , Piparia, Vadodara, were included as per our inclusion criteria. Result: Among 100 type 2 diabetic patients, 15 patients received monotherapy and 85 patients received combinational therapy of metformin. Out of 120 FDCs of metformin prescribed in 100 patients, plain (conventional release) formulations were most commonly prescribed (39.17%). Among FDC therapy of metformin, glimepiride + metformin, and glimepiride + pioglitazone + metformin combinations were most commonly found. As an adjuvant therapy with metformin, human analog insulin was most commonly prescribed. The sulfonylureas (SUs) were found to be the most commonly prescribed oral antidiabetic drug class along with metformin (SUs). In this study, we found 49% of the patients receiving metformin with low medication adherence. Conclusion: The practice of metformin monotherapy is limited and it is frequently prescribed in combinations with other antidiabetic agents. We observed an almost equal utilization of different oral formulations of metformin. A low medication adherence with metformin emphasizes the need for appropriate patient counseling and therapeutic interventions.
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A microbial study on water used by street food vendors and microbial flora found on their hands, in a densely populated urban area of Vadodara, Gujarat
Vedant V Shrimali, Krunal Kiritbhai Shah
July-December 2017, 5(2):81-86
Introduction: Street vended food is not only appreciated for their unique flavours, convenience and the role which they play in the cultural and social heritage of societies, it also becomes important and essential for maintaining nutritional status of populations. Method: Vendors were chosen randomly for obtaining various samples. Samples were taken after informed consent. Sterile swabs were used to collect sample from the palms, fingers and area between fingers from both the hands of the individuals preparing or contacting the food. Water samples were collected in sterile containers using aseptic precautions. Samples were inoculated on suitable culture media and subjected for identification after obtaining growth. Result: Total of 14 water samples and 28 swabs were collected from 14 different street vendors. Average of 1100 cfu/ml of water sample was isolated. Organisms isolated from water samples were Pseudomonas spp. E coli and Klebsiella. From the swabs taken from both the hands, major organism isolated was Coagulase negative staphylococci followed by Staphylococcus aureus and E coli. Conclusion: Quality of food offered by street vendors directly affects the health of a person and population in general. Our study shows poor quality of hand hygiene maintained by street vendors as well as poor quality of water used for preparation of food, which may affect quality of food provided.
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Electrocardiographic changes in organophosphate poisoning - A prospective study of 50 cases at a tertiary care center in Gujarat
Sanket Makwana, MN Saiyad, Vaishali Makwana
July-December 2017, 5(2):18-24
Introduction: Organophosphates (OP) are irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors, producing nicotinic and muscarinic effects. Cardiac complications with these compounds are often fatal. Early recognition of abnormal rhythm protects the patients against acquiring life-threatening arrhythmias. Hence, this study was done to determine the ECG findings in patients with OP poisoning. Aims & Objectives: To determine the various electrocardiographic changes & its importance in acute Organophosphate poisoning. Materials and methods: This prospective observational study of 50 cases was conducted for 2 years in a tertiary care institute. All adults with history of OP poisoning, admitted within 12 hours were enrolled. Patients with cardiac disease or treated from outside were excluded. Diagnosis was made by history, clinical features and confirmed by serum cholinesterase level. ECG analysis of each case was done for rate, rhythm, ST-T changes, PR and QTc intervals, and conduction defects etc. Results: Mean age in the study group was 30.66 ± 11.70(SD). Male:Female ratio was 1.94:1. 78% were suicidal, 22% were accidental and 6(12%) cases expired. Most common mode of poisoning was ingestion 45 cases (90%). Most common ECG abnormality was Sinus Tachycardia in 12(24%) followed by ST-T changes 8(16%), QTc prolongation in 6(12%), Sinus Bradycardia 4(8%), Extrasystole 2(4%), PR Prolongation 1(2%), AF 1(2%) and VT 1(2%). Conclusion: Poisoning with OP compounds can produce significant ECG abnormalities especially sinus tachycardia, non specific ST-T changes and QTc interval prolongation. Since these abnormalities can cause lethal arrhythmia and cardiac damage, careful observation of the electrocardiogram of the patients exposed to OP compound is necessary, parallel to the appropriate medical management.
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Sociodemographic and immunological profile of human immunodeficiency virus patients in tribal population
Naveen Kumar Dulhani, Yasmeen Khan
January-June 2018, 6(1):14-17
Aim: To study the sociodemographic and immunological profile of HIV seropositive patients attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) center of a tertiary care hospital. Methodology: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at an ART center of a tertiary care hospital from October 2016 to December 2017. It was a retrospective cohort study. Results: In our study, the total number of patients was 295. Majority of the patients were between 15 and 45 years of age. Males were 52% and females were 46%, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3:1. Married tribal patients were the most affected. Majority of the patients were homemakers and nonagricultural workers; larger group belonged to low socioeconomic status. Heterosexual transmission was the commonest route of infection. Conclusion: Reproductive age group, low socioeconomic status, illiterate, tribal population, and homemakers were found to be associated with HIV positivity; heterosexual transmission was the commonest mode of infection.
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A cost-effective method of restoring primary anterior teeth with loss of crown structure
Adrija Buch, Swara Shah, Pratik B Kariya, Anisha Keshan
January-June 2018, 6(1):31-33
Managing a child with severely mutilated anterior teeth is a task for pedodontists. Although various options are available today for esthetically rehabilitating anterior teeth, they are costly and technique sensitive. In the present case, we esthetically rehabilitated a 5-year-old child with severe early childhood caries with chairside fabricated indirect composite shell crowns. The technique described in this case report is simple, requires minimal compliance from the child, is less technique sensitive, and can be completed in an accepted chairside time.
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Evaluation of mesiodistal inclination of permanent maxillary and mandibular first molars in different Angle's molar relation: A cephalometric study
Dweepika Garg, Santosh Kumar Goje
January-June 2018, 6(1):8-13
Introduction: Angle's molar relationship is the most widely used classification in spite of the introduction of various other classifications. At the end of the treatment, the molars are finished in a Class I, II, or III molar relation. Thus, it is important to know the ideal inclinations of upper and lower 1st molars, thereby assisting in achieving a stable relationship. Aims and Objectives: The aim and objective of this study was to evaluate the mesiodistal inclination of permanent maxillary and mandibular first molars in Angle's Class I, II, and III molar relationships in relation to the occlusal plane. Methodology: Lateral cephalograms of 16–30-year-old individuals with Class I, II, and III molar relations were selected and traced in Dolphin imaging software, and the angle between the first molar and occlusal plane was calculated. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the inclination of maxillary 1st molar in between Class I and Class III. No significant difference was noted in the inclination of maxillary first molar in case of Class I and Class II. In case of mandibular molars, there was a statistically significant difference in case of Class I and Class II and between Class I and Class III. Conclusion: When the end molar relationship of a case is planned to be Class I, the upper molar should be at an angle of 84.12° to the occlusal plane. When the end molar relationship of a case is planned to be Class II, the upper molar should be 84.15° to the occlusal plane. When the end molar relationship of a case is planned to be Class III, the upper molar should be inclined at an angle of 87.07° to the occlusal plane.
  198 47 -
Paradiagm shift in diabetes care: to rural, pregnant women: Indian rural diabetic females should also be aimed at.
Hetal Pandya, Arti Muley
July-December 2017, 5(2):1-3
  187 42 -
Evaluation of the knowledge of MDR- TB among the Multi-Purpose Workers, under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme, in the mid hills of Himachal Pradesh, India
AK Singh, B Chawla, S Chawla, DK Bhaglani
July-December 2017, 5(2):4-10
Introduction: Knowledge of MDR- TB in Multi- Purpose Workers (MPWs) is cornerstone for implementation of RNTCP, so its evaluation is necessary. Methods: A Cross sectional study in 174 MPWs was conducted. Seven questions about MDR- TB were asked. Answers graded as no answer, incorrect answer and correct answer were allocated zero point, zero and two points respectively. Total score by the MPWs (out of 14), converted to percentage, was used to categorize the knowledge as no knowledge (0%), poor knowledge (> 0 and ≤ 25 %), fair (> 25 and ≤ 50 %), good (>50 and ≤ 75%) and > 75% as excellent knowledge. Comparison was done with the years of job, the training and DOTS provision status. The data was analyzed in SPSS Statistics version 21 and Microsoft Excel 2010 software. Results: Only 9.2% MPWs had received Modular training. 85.6% had provided DOTS and 86.8% had more than five years of job experience. 9.1% workers had no knowledge about MDR-TB. 16.6%, 53.4% and 20.6% workers had poor, fair and good knowledge respectively. Significant difference of knowledge by gender was found (p-value = 0.02). 15.8% and 52.5% of untrained workers had poor and fair knowledge, respectively. 88.8% of workers having good knowledge were the DOT Providers (p- value of 0.04). 66.7% workers having good knowledge had job experience of more than 20 years (p- value = 0.001). Conclusion: Knowledge about MDR- TB in MPWs has a significant relation with DOTS provision status and the years of service rendered. Absence of Modular trainings leads to poor knowledge of the worker.
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